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Anthes, R. (1977). A cumulus parameterization scheme utilizing a one-dimensional cloud model, Monthly Weather Review 105: 270–286.

Anthes, R. A., Kuo, Y.-H., Low-Nam, S., Hsie, E.-Y. and Bettge, T. M. (1989). Estimation of episodic and climatological skill and uncertainty in regional numerical models, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 115: 763–806.

Anthes, R., Hsie, E. and Kuo, Y.-H. (1987). Description of the penn state / ncar mesoscale model version 4 (mm4), ncar tech. note. ncar/tn-282, Technical Report NCAR/TN-282, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Anthes, R., Seaman, N. and Warner, T. (1980). Comparisons of numerical simulations of the planetary boundary layer by a mixed-layer and multi-level model, Monthly Weather Review 108: 365–376.

Anthes, R. T. W. (1978). Development of hydrodynamic models suitable for air pollution and other mesometeorological studies, Monthly Weather Review 106: 1045–1078.

Bates, G., Giorgi, F. and Hostetler, S. (1993). Towards the simulation of the effects of the great lakes on regional climate, Monthly Weather Review 121: 1373–1387.

Bates, G., Hostetler, S. and Giorgi, F. (1995). Two-year simulation of the great lakes region with a coupled modeling system, Monthly Weather Review, 1505–1522.

Bates, G. T. (1990). A case study of the effects of topography on cyclone development in the western united states, Monthly Weather Review 118: 1808–1825.

Beheng, K. (1994). A parameterization of warm cloud microphysical conversion processes, Atmospheric Research 33: 193–206.

Bell. J.L, Sloan, L.C.  and Snyder, Mark A. (2004): Regional Changes in Extreme Climatic Events: A Future Climate Scenario. Journal of Climate:  17: 81–87.

Betts, A. (1982). Cloud thermodynamic models in saturation point coordinates, 39: 2182– 2191.

Betts, A. (1986). A new convective adjustment scheme. Part I: Observational and theoretical basis, 112: 667–691.

Betts, A. (1997). The parameterization of deep convection, in R. Smith (ed.), The physics and parameterization of moist atmospheric convection, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 255–279.

Betts, A. and Harshavardhan (1987). Thermodynamic constraint on the cloud liquid water feedback in climate models, 92: 8483–8485.

Betts, A. K. and Miller, M. (1993). The Betts-Miller scheme, Chapter 9, The representation of cumulus convection in numerical models of the atmosphere, (Eds.

K.A. Emanuel and D.J. Raymond),Meteo. Mon., American Meteorological Society, pp. 107–121.

Blackadar, A. (1979). Boundary layer wind maxima and their significance for the growth of nocturnal inversions, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 38: 283–290.

Briegleb, B. (1992). Delta-eddington approximation for solar radiation in the ncar community climate model, Journal of Geophysical Research 97: 7603–7612.

Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity (1984). American Geophysical Union, chapter Modeling evapotranspiration processes for three-dimensional global climate models, pp. 52–72.

Dai, A., Giorgi, F. and Trenberth, K. E. (1999). Observed and model-simulated diurnal cycles of precipitation over the contiguous united states, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6377–6402.

Davies, H. and Turner, R. (1977). Updating prediction models by dynamical relaxation: An examination of the technique, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 103: 225–245.

Deardoff, J. (1978). Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture with inclusion of a layer of vegetation, Journal of Geophysical Research 83: 1889–1903.

Dickinson, R., Errico, R., Giorgi, F. and Bates, G. (1989). A regional climate model for the western united states, Climate Change 15: 383–422.

Dickinson, R., Henderson-Sellers, A. and Kennedy, P. (1993). Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (bats) version 1e as coupled to the ncar community climate model, Technical report, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Dickinson, R., Kennedy, P., Henderson-Sellers, A. and Wilson, M. (1986). Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (bats) for the ncar community climate model, Technical Report NCARE/TN-275+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Diffenbaugh, N.S.  and  Sloan, L.C.  (2004) Mid-Holocene Orbital Forcing of Regional-Scale Climate: A Case Study of Western North America Using a High-Resolution RCM. Journal of Climate: 17: 2927–2937.

Emanuel, K. A. (1991). A scheme for representing cumulus convection in large-scale models, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor.Soc. 48: 2313–2335.

Fritsch, J. M. and Chappell, C. F. (1980). Numerical prediction of convectively driven mesoscale pressure systems. part i: Convective parameterization, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 37: 1722–1733.

Giorgi, F. (1989). Two-dimensional simulations of possible mesoscale effects of nuclear war fires, Journal of Geophysical Research 94: 1127–1144.

Giorgi, F. (1990a). Sensitivity of simulated wintertime precipitation and soil hydrology simulation over the western united states to lower boundary specifications, Atmos. Ocean 28: 1–23.

Giorgi, F. (1990b). Simulation of regional climate using a limited area model nested in a general circulation model, Journal of Climate 3: 941–963.

Giorgi, F. (1991). Sensitivity of simulated summertime precipitation over th e western united states to different physics parameterization, Monthly Weather Review 119: 2870–2888.

Giorgi, F. (1995). Perspectives for regional earth system modeling, Global Planet Change 10: 941–963.

Giorgi, F. and Bates, G. (1989). The climatologic al skill of a regional model over complex terrain, Monthly Weather Review 117: 2325–2347.

Giorgi, F., Bates, G. and Nieman, S. (1992a). Simulation of the arid climate o f the southern great basin using a regional climate model, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 73(11): 1807–1822.

Giorgi, F., Bates, G. and Nieman, S. (1993a). The multi-year surface climatology of a regional atmospheric model over the western united states, Journal of Climate 6: 75–95.

Giorgi, F., Bi, X. and Qian, Y. (2002). Radiative forcing and regional climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols over east asia: A regional coupled climate-chemistry/aerosols model study, Journal of Geophysical Research 107.

Giorgi, F., Bi, X. and Qian, Y. (2003a). Indirect vs. direct effects of anthropogenic sulfate on the climate of east asia as simulated with a regional coupled climate-chemistry/aerosol model, Climate Change 58: 345–376.

Giorgi, F., Francisco, R. and Pal, J. (2003b). Effects of a subgrid-scale topography and land use scheme on the simulation of surface climate and hydrology. part 1: Effects of temperature and water vapor disaggregation., Journal of Hydrometeorology 4: 317– 333.

Giorgi, F., Hostetler, S. and Brodeur, C. S. (1994a). Analysis of the surface hydrology in a regional climate model, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 120: 161–183.

Giorgi, F., Huang, Y., Nishizawa, K. and Fu, C.-B. (1999). A seasonal cycle simulation over eastern asia and its sensitivity to radiative transfer and surface processes, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6403–6423.

Giorgi, F. and Marinucci, M. (1991). Validation of a regional atmospheric model over europe: Sensitivity of wintertime and summertime simulations to selected physics parameterizations and lower boundary conditions, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 117: 1171–1206.

Giorgi, F. and Marinucci, M. (1996). An investigation of the sensitivity of simulated precipitation to the model resolution and its implications for climate studies, Monthly Weather Review 124: 148–166.

Giorgi, F., Marinucci, M. and Bates, G. (1993b). Development of a second generation regional climate model (regcm2) i: Boundary layer and radiative transfer processes, Monthly Weather Review 121: 2794–2813.

Giorgi, F., Marinucci, M., Bates, G. and DeCanio, G. (1993c). Development of a second generation regional climate model (regcm2) ii: Convective processes and assimilation of lateral boundary conditions, Monthly Weather Review 121: 2814–2832.

Giorgi, F., Marinucci, M. and Visconti, G. (1990). Use of a limited-area model nested in a general circulation model for regional climate simulation over europe, Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 18413–18431.

Giorgi, F., Marinucci, R. and Visconti, G. (1992b). 2xco2 climate change scenario over europe generated using a limited area model nested in a general circulation model, 2, Climate Change Scenario 97: 10011–10028.

Giorgi, F. and Mearns, L. (1991). Approaches to regional climate change simulation: A review, Review of Geophysics 29: 191–216.

Giorgi, F. and Mearns, L. O. (1999). Introduction to special section: Regional climate modeling revisited, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6335–6352.

Giorgi, F., Mearns, L., Shields, C. and L.Mayer (1996). A regional model study of the importance of local versus remote controls of the 1988 drought and the 1993 flood over the central united states, Journal of Climate 9: 1150–1162.

Giorgi, F., Mearns, L., Shields, C. and McDaniel, L. (1998). Regional nested model simulations of present day and 2xco2 climate over the central great plains of the united states, Climate Change 40: 457–493.

Giorgi, F., Shields, C., Brodeur and Bates, G. (1994b). Regional climate change scenarios over the united states produced with a nested regional climate model: Spatial and seasonal characteristics, Journal of Climate 7: 375–399.

Grell, G. (1993). Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations, Monthly Weather Review 121: 764–787.

Grell, G. A., Dudhia, J. and Stauffer, D. R. (1994a). A description of the fifth-generation penn state/ncar mesoscale model (mm5), Technical Report NCAR/TN-398+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Grell, G., Dudhia, J. and Stauffer, D. (1994b). A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). Tech. Note TN-398+IA, Technical report, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Grell, G., Kuo, Y.-H. and Pasch, R. J. (1991). Semi-prognostic tests of cumulus parameterization schemes in the middle latitudes, Monthly Weather Review 119: 5–31.

William J. Gutowski Jr., Francis O. Otieno, Raymond W. Arritt, Eugene S. Takle and Zaitao Pan. 2004: Diagnosis and Attribution of a Seasonal Precipitation Deficit in a U.S. Regional Climate Simulation. Journal of Hydrometeorology: Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 230–242.

William J. Gutowski Jr., Steven G. Decker, Rodney A. Donavon, Zaitao Pan, Raymond W. Arritt and Eugene S. Takle. 2003: Temporal–Spatial Scales of Observed and Simulated Precipitation in Central U.S. Climate. Journal of Climate: Vol. 16, No. 22, pp. 3841–3847.

Hack, J., Boville, B., Briegleb, B., Kiehl, J., Rasch, P. and Williamson, D. (1993). Description of the ncar community climate model (ccm2), Technical Report NCAR/TN-382+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Henderson-Sellers, B. (1986). Calculating the surface energy balance for lake and reservoir modeling: A review, Rev. Geophys. 24(3): 625–649.

High resolution models of the planetary boundary layer in Advances in Environmental Science and Engineering (1979). Gordon and Breach, Newark, N.J., pp. 50–85.

Hirakucci, H. and Giorgi, F. (1995). Multiyear present-day and 2xco2 simulations of monsoon-dominated climate over eastern asia and japan with a regional climate model nested in a general circulation model, Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 21105–21125.

Holtslag, A. and Boville, B. (1989). Local versus nonlocal boundary-layer diffusion in a global climate model, Journal of Climate 6: 1825–1842.

Holtslag, A. and Boville, B. (1993). Local versus nonlocal boundary-layer diffusion in a global climate model, Journal of Climate 6.

Holtslag, A., de Bruijn, E. and Pan, H.-L. (1990). A high resolution air mass transformation model for short-range weather forecasting, Monthly Weather Review 118: 1561– 1575.

Hostetler, S., Bates, G. and Giorgi, F. (1993). Interactive nesting of a lake thermal model within a regional climate model for climate change studies, Geophysical Research 98: 5045–5057.

Hostetler, S., Giorgi, F. and Bates, G. (1994a). Role of lake-atmosphere feedbacks in sustaining lakes bonneville and lahontan 18,000 years ago, Science 263: 265–268.

Hostetler, S., Giorgi, F., Bates, G. and Bartlein, P. (1994b). Lake-atmosphere feedbacks associated with paleolakes bonneville and lahontan, Science pp. 665–668.

Hsie, E., Anthes, R. and Keyser, D. (1984). Numerical simulation of frontogenisis in a moist atmosphere, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 41: 2581–2594.

Indeje, M., Semazzi, F.H.M, Xie, L. and Ogallo, L.J. ( 2001). Mechanistic Model Simulations of the East African Climate Using NCAR Regional Climate Model: Influence of Large-Scale Orography on the Turkana Low-Level Jet. Journal of Climate: 14: 2710–2724.

Kato, H., Hirakuchi, H., Nishizawa, K. and Giorgi, F. (1999). Performance of ncar regcm in the simulation of june and january climate over eastern asia and the high-resolution effect of the model, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6455–6476.

Kiehl, J., Hack, J., Bonan, G., Boville, B., Breigleb, B., Williamson, D. and Rasch, P. (1996). Description of the ncar community climate model (ccm3), Technical Report NCAR/TN-420+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Kuo, S.-L. (1974). Further studies of the parameterization of the effect of cumulus convection on large-scale flow, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 31: 1232–1240.

Leung, L., Ghan, S., Zhao, Z.-C., Luo, Y., Wang, W.-C. and Wei, H.-L. (1999). Inter-comparison of regional climate simulations of the 1991 summer monsoon in eastern asia, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6425–6454.

Liu, Y.-Q., Avissar, R. and Giorgi, F. (1996). A simulation with the regional climate model regcm2 of extremely anomalous precipitation during the 1991 east asian flood: An evaluation study, Journal of Geophysical Research 101: 26199–26216.

Liu, Y.-Q., Giorgi, F. and Washington, W. (1994). Simulation of summer monsoon climate over east asia with ncar regional climate model, Monthly Weather Review 122: 2331– 2348.

Marinucci, M. and Giorgi, F. (1992). A 2xco2 climate change scenario over europe generated using a limited area model nested in a general circulation model, i: Present-day climate simulation, Journal of Geophysical Research 97: 9989–10009.

Mearns, L., Bogardi, I., Giorgi, F., Matyasovszky, I. and Palecki, M. (1999a). Comparison of climate change scenarios generated from regional climate model experiments and statistical downscaling, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6603–6621.

Mearns, L., Giorgi, F., McDaniel, L. and Brodeur, C. S. (1995). Analysis of daily variability and diurnal range of temperature in a nested regional climate models: Comparison with observations and doubled co2 results, Climate Dynamics 11: 193–209.

Mearns, L., Mavromatis, T. and Tsvetsinskaya, E. (1999b). Comparative responses of epic and ceres crop models to high and low spatial resolution climate change scenarios, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6623–6646.


Pal, J. and Eltahir, E. ( 2001) Pathways Relating Soil Moisture Conditions to Future Summer Rainfall within a Model of the Land–Atmosphere System. Journal of Climate: 14: 1227–1242.

Pal, J., Small, E. and Eltahir, E. (2000). Simulation of regional-scale water and energy budgets: Representation of subgrid cloud and precipitation processes within regcm, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 105(D24): 29579–29594.

Pan, Z.-T., Takle, E., Segal, M. and Arritt, R. (1999). Simulation of potential impacts of man-made land use changes on u.s. summer climate under various synoptic regimes, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6515–6528.

Patterson, J. and Hamblin, P. (1988). Thermal simulation of a lake with winter ice cover, Limn. Oceanography 33: 323–338.

Perkey, D. and Kreitzberg, C. (1976). A time-dependent lateral boundary scheme for limited -area primitive equation models, Monthly Weather Review 104: 744–755.


Jian-Hua Qian, Anji Seth and Stephen Zebiak. 2003: Reinitialized versus Continuous Simulations for Regional Climate Downscaling. Monthly Weather Review: Vol. 131, No. 11, pp. 2857–2874.

Qian, J.-H., Giorgi, F. and Fox-Rabinovitz, M. (1999). Regional stretched grid generation and its application to the ncar regcm, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6501– 6513.

Qian, Y., Giorgi, F. and Huang, Y. (2001). Regional simulation of anthropogenic sulfur over east asia and its sensitivity to model parameters, Tellus 53: 171–191.

 Maisa Rojas and Anji Seth. 2003: Simulation and Sensitivity in a Nested Modeling System for South America. Part II: GCM Boundary Forcing. Journal of Climate: Vol. 16, No. 15, pp. 2454–2471.

Anji Seth and Maisa Rojas. 2003: Simulation and Sensitivity in a Nested Modeling System for South America. Part I: Reanalyses Boundary Forcing. Journal of Climate: Vol. 16, No. 15, pp. 2437–2453.

Seth, A. and Giorgi, F. (1998). The effect of domain choice on summer precipitation simulation and sensitivity in a regional climate model, Journal of Climate 11: 2698– 2712.

Shea, D., Trenberth, K. and Reynolds, R. (1992). A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology, Journal of Climate 5: 987–1001.

Slingo, J. (1980). A cloud parameterization scheme derived from gate data for use with a numerical model, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 106: 341– 362.

Slingo, J. (1989). A gcm parameterization for the shortwave radiative properties of water clouds, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 46: 1419–1427.

Small, E., Giorgi, F. and Sloan, L. (1999). Regional climate model simulation of precipitation in central asia: Mean and interannual variability, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6563–6582.

Small, E. and Sloan, L. (1999). Simulating the water balance of the aral sea with a coupled regional climate-lake model, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6583–6602.

Mark A. Snyder and Lisa C. Sloan. 2005: Transient Future Climate over the Western United States Using a Regional Climate Model. Earth Interactions: Vol. 9, No. 11, pp. 1–21.

Sun, L.-Q., Semazzi, F., Giorgi, F. and Ogallo, L. (1999a). Application of the ncar regional climate model to eastern africa, 1. simulation of the short rains of 1988, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6529–6548.

Sun, L.-Q., Semazzi, F., Giorgi, F. and Ogallo, L. (1999b). Application of the ncar regional climate model to eastern africa, 2. simulation of interannual variability of short rains, Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 6549–6562.

Sundqvist, H., Berge, E. and Kristjansson, J. (1989). The effects of domain choice on summer precipitation simulation and sensitivity in a regional climate model, Journal of Climate 11: 2698–2712.

Trenberth, K. (1992). Global analyses from ecmwf and atlas of 1000 to 10mb circulation statistics, Technical Report NCAR/TN-373+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Elena A. Tsvetsinskaya, Linda O. Mearns and William E. Easterling. 2001: Investigating the Effect of Seasonal Plant Growth and Development in Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Simulations. Part II: Atmospheric Response to Crop Growth and Development. Journal of Climate: Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 711–729.

 Zhiwei Yang and Raymond W. Arritt. 2002: Tests of a Perturbed Physics Ensemble Approach for Regional Climate Modeling. Journal of Climate: Vol. 15, No. 20, pp. 2881–2896.

Zeng, X., Zhao, M. and Dickinson, R. E. (1998). Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algoriths for the computation of sea surface fluxes using toga coare and tao data, Journal of Climate 11: 2628–2644.

Zhang, D.-L., Hsie, E.-Y. and Moncrieff, M. (1988). A comparison of explicit and implicit predictions of convective and stratiform precipitating weather systems with a meso-�-scale numerical model, 114: 31–60.

Zhang, G.-J. and McFarlane, N. (1995). Sensitivity of climate simulations to parameterization of cumulus convection in the canadian climate centre general circulation model, Atmos. Ocean 33: 407–446.